Located in northwest Florida, ten miles from the Alabama state line on its panhandle, Pensacola is rich in historic, military, and natural landmarks, all with aspects of the sun, sand, seafood, and Florida water.
Although St. Augustine, on the east or Atlantic coast of Florida, is considered the oldest American city and took root after Admiral Pedro Menendez de Aviles sailed into it and founded a colony, Pensacola, on the state of the West or the Gulf of Mexico, he could claim the title that his settlement lasted.
Six years earlier, in August 1559, Spanish explorer Tristan de Luna threw his anchor in an area of a local tribe called "Panzacola" for "long-haired", with the intention of executing Luis de Velasco, the Mexican Viceroy of Spain ordered the establishment of a settlement on the Gulf.
Well-equipped and prepared, it was equipped with 11 ships and brought 1500 potential colonists, including African slaves and Mexican Indians. But history was forced to take the wrong fork on the road when a fierce hurricane downed eight de Luna ships on September 19.
Still, in order to save the expedition, he sent one of them to Veracruz, Mexico, to seek help, leaving the immigrants to make their living on the coast and surviving by emptying the supplies they had brought. However, instead of securing the colonists, the ships, which arrived a year later, survived only by rescuing them in Havana and leaving little more than a military outpost until the spring of 1561. By August, a handful of soldiers had left the new land and returned to Mexico, considering it too dangerous to settle.
Although it was beyond knowledge at the time, the claim to fame as the oldest, continuous city in the U.S. could never be erected.
It would be almost 150 years, in 1698, in fact for the foreign powers to try to consolidate again – in this case, Spain established a more successful garrison in what would become the modern Pensacola and set up a colonial city to that end.
As has often happened throughout history, the country, once claimed, became the prize sought by others, often by military means, and Pensacola proved no exception. The Spanish initially surrendered to the French in May 1719, but this was by no means the end of his ownership. France, Spain, Britain and Spain would regain power over the next century, until the last 1821 finally gave Florida to the United States. Since the Confederacy also "took up residence", Pensacola is considered a "Five Flag City". "
Much of its nearly 500-year history is preserved and can be experienced in the Pensacola Historic District, managed by the UVF History Fund, which is an organization supported by the University of West Florida and consists of 27 properties on the National Register of Historic Places.
Admission, which can only be purchased for a week, includes guided tours and visitor entry, and tickets can be obtained at Tivoli High House.
Important structures are many. Seville Square, for example, is the center of the old settlement and served as the end of Britain's parade park, ending with its twin, Plaza Ferdinand VII. Here, in 1821, General Andrev Jackson accepted the territory of West Florida from Spain and was the first to raise the American flag.
The small preserved part of Fort George, the target of the American Revolution at Pensacola, is a symbol of the British occupation from 1763 to 1781.
Original houses abound, including the Julee Panton Cottage, the 1805 Lavalle House, the 1871 Dorr House, and the 1890 Lear-Rocheblave House.
The Church of the Ancient Christ, located in Seville Square and built in 1824 by slave labor, is the oldest of its kind in the country, which still holds its original place today.
There are also several museums: TT Ventvorth, Jr., Florida State Museum, which was built in 1908 and originally served as Town Hall, Pensacola Children's Museum, Voice of the Pensacola Multicultural Center, and the Museum of Commerce Museum.
Although not technically part of the Pensacola Historic District, the Pensacola Grand Hotel is on the site of the Louisville and Nashville Railvai Passenger Warehouse, which was only built in 1912 to replace the original 1882 Union Building that served Pensacola for 58 years. It is now on the National Register of Historic Places.
Renovated in its original splendor and turned into a 15-story glass tower, it retains much of its early decoration, including a French clay tile roof and ceramic mosaic floor, decorated with period pieces such as solid material, bronze light and antique furniture.
Its lavish 1912 ground-floor "restaurant" features a front door from Biv from London, a chandelier from Philadelphia's bronze French style, 1885 beaded glass from a Victorian hotel in Scranton and a Lloid-style grill from London.
Pensacola Naval Air Station:
At Pensacola Naval Air Station there are several important attractions that can be accessed by a gate and identification is required for entry, such as a license.
Located on the site of the Navy Yard, erected in 1825, it began as aerial training at the outbreak of World War I with nine officers, 23 mechanics, eight planes and ten beach tents, and was considered the first of its kind.
Expanding dramatically because of World War II, he trained 1,100 cadets a month, collectively flying about two million hours. After the Navy Air Force Basic Training Command moved its headquarters from Corpus Christi, Texas to Pensacola, clean planes were incorporated into the curriculum. Today, 12,000 active military personnel are assigned to the station, 9,000 of whom are in aeronautical training.
The world-famous National Aviation Museum, also located here, is Florida's largest and one of the most visited attractions. It began not as a tourist sight, but as a means of incorporating the history of naval aviation into cadet curricula, for which there was not enough time or funding for the traditional book and learning modality.
Originally housed in an 8,500-square-foot wooden frame dating from World War II, the site has become the site of selection, collection, preservation and display of aircraft and artifacts that represent the development and heritage of the service branch. It opened its doors on June 8, 1963.
Increasingly expanding, there are currently 700 airplanes in its collection on display at 11 other Navy official museums around the country, but some 150 pristine restoration facilities are still on display here following a new 37-acre outdoor facility and 350,000 square feet of indoor space is finished. Admission is free.
Divided into the South Wing, the West Wing, the Second Floor Mezzanine, and the Hangar One separate bay, it follows the evolution of naval aviation and the aircraft it operated from its inception to the last conflicts in the Middle East.
For example, Triad A-1 is so named because if it is operated in three areas of air (wings), water (float) and land (wheels). Nieuport 28, in World War I section, facilitated the experimentation of the aircraft, while the Navy-Curtiss mammoth NC-4, at the threshold of the Golden Age exhibit, first crossed the Atlantic from Trepassie in Newfoundland to the Azores Islands outside Portugal.
The speed of jet fighters during the Cold War is represented by such types as the McDonnell F2H-4 Banshee, the North American FJ-2 Furi, and the Russian MiG-15.
Central to the west wing is the USS Cabot Island and a replica of its carrier deck, which is surrounded by an extensive collection of mostly WWII aircraft, including the Grumman F4F-3 Vildcat, Vought-Sikorski FG-1D Corsair and General Motors (Grumman) TBM Avenger.
Of the many exhibits on the museum cemetery, which on the other hand overlooks the South and West Wings, and can be accessed by the stairs of ground planes, there can be none that would give more contrast to each other than those dedicated to the easier steps. aerospace and space exploration.
Developed from a spherical balloon first successfully executed by the Montgolfier brothers in 1783 in the first case, the airships were large, controllable balloons that, by themselves, achieved lifting buoyancy but incorporated engines for propulsion and propulsion. rudders and elevators, for proper movement) and longitudinal (tilting) steering axes. Crews and passengers were housed in the suspended gondolas. Rigid types contain internal frames, not rigid ones, like an embankment.
Gondolas or control cars from L-8 naval ships and World War II K-47 warships are on display. The latter, delivered May 19, 1943. At Moffett Field, California, it had an internal volume of 425,000 cubic meters.
In the second, or space case, a replica of the Mercuri Freedom 7 space capsule, whose original unit was launched at 116.5 nautical miles and air / space transmitted for 14.8 minutes, represents the contribution of naval aviation to the spacecraft. The program, because naval aviator Alan B. Shepard became the first American to enter the area on May 5, 1961.
Also on display is the original Skilab II command module, which operated the Skilab space station for 28 days between May and June 1973. Operated a three-man crew, the entire Navy, set several records, including the longest space flight, the longest distance traveled and the largest mass landed at to the universe.
Visible from both the burial ground and the main floor is a 10-foot, 10,000-square-foot Blue Angels atrium that connects the South and West Wings and features four Douglas A-4 Skihawks in a diving diamond painted in an aerobatic team and # 39; dark blue liver.
The 55,000-square-foot hangar Bai One features aircraft such as the Sikor VH-3 Sea King, which transported Presidents Nikon and Ford during the 1970s; Douglas R4D-5L Skitrain, which first landed in the Antarctic South Pole in 1956; and the Grumman F-14D Tomcat, a supersonic supersonic fighter with a turntable that recorded the last combat mission.
Visitor services include complementary tours, a laser-powered screen elevator showing multiple daily movies, two souvenir shops and a Cubi Bar cafe.
Practical flights from the famous Blue Angels Flight Demonstration Team can be viewed on the flight museum line, just north of the museum itself.
Another historic attraction at the Navy Airport Station is the Pensacola Lighthouse.
Due to the strategic importance of the Port of Pensacola, Congress appropriated $ 6,000 in March 1823 for the construction of the lighthouse, selecting the appropriate location in June but temporarily replacing the floating alternative, "Aurora Borealis," until construction was completed. Transferred from the mouth of the Mississippi River, it was positioned behind the western end of Santa Rosa Island.
The permanent structure, a 40-foot-wide white brick tower with ten oil lamps, each reinforced with a 14-inch reflector, was first lit on December 20 of the following year and allowed the sailboats to steer towards it and then enter the harbor.
Although he proved to be more useful than the floating yacht he replaced, he began to discover his shortcomings by 1850: he was distracted by trees on Santa Rosa Island, and his light was too dim to serve as an effective navigational aid, which prompted a newly established lighthouse. The board recommends a replacement that would be raised at least 150 feet in height.
Responding to his request, Congress awarded $ 25,000 in 1854 and an additional $ 30,000 two years later. Construction of the new facility, located half a mile west of the original, was completed in 1858. It rose 159 feet from the base 30 feet in diameter and clamped to the top 15 feet, first ignited for the New Year & # 39 on 1859 by Keeper Palmes. It contained the most powerful then available lens, the first-order Fresnel.
Now listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the Pensacola Lighthouse offers the visitor a glimpse into the mid-19th century light of life, with a visitor center and museum shop housed in the 1890s Carriage House, the Richard C. Museum. The 1869 Callavai is the guardian of the apartment, and the 177-foot lighthouse itself, with a view of Pensacola Bay.
Another historically important attraction at Pensacola Naval Air Station is Fort Barrancas.
"Located on the cliffs above Pensacola Bay, Fort Barrancas was built to protect the United States from foreign invaders," according to the National Park Service. "Once considered vital to national defense, today Fort Barrancas illustrates the evolution of military technology and American value."
Shortly after Spain ceded Florida to the United States, the United States Navy selected Pensacola Bay as the Navy's main courtyard, and in parallel with the decision was the shipment of officers from the Army Corps for the Exploration of the Coast with the intention of building fortifications to protect the Navy.
Built over the ruins of a 1798 Spanish fort, designated Fort San Carlos de Barrancas, "Barrancas" is the Spanish word for "bluffs" – it was the third such fort in the Gulf. The existing Battery de San Antonio has been retained and modified.
Taking shape between March 21 and September 21, the hands of enslaved workers, who worked from sunrise to sunset, housed significant weapons, including ten 24-pound guns.
Although it was built as a defensive structure, it was only fought during the Civil War.
Due to new developments for cannons and naval warships, the US government began evaluating proposals for a new coastal defense in 1885, and after the curtain closed in World War II, was declared redundant in 1947.
The trail leads from the Visitor Center to a real dragon-shaped fortress whose prominent features include a blade and a charmer, a trench, a drawbridge, a harbor port, a security guard, an open parade area and a battery with water. The tunnel led the last two. The cannon projectiles fired from the water battery itself were intended to erupt from the barrel and hit the ships on their water lines.
The fortress, four meters thick by 20 meters high walls, consisting of six million bricks, contains arches and valuable ceilings.
Nearby, the Advanced Redoubt, built between 1845 and 1870, protected the northern side of the peninsula, the site of the Pensacola Naval Yard.
Bridge and bridge connected via Breeze Bay to Mainland, Pensacola Beach, eight miles from downtown Pensacola and accessed by Interstate 110 South, is a narrow stretch of sweet sand on Santa Rosa Island overlooking the emerald waters of the Gulf and Gulf of Mexico and offering activities associated with the oceans, such as swimming, sunbathing, fishing, diving, sailing and diving. Huge red, colorful and purple sunsets regularly paint the sky.
Beach hotels are plentiful, such as surf and sand, Margaritaville Beach, and Portofino Island Resort, along with well-known names such as Hampton Inn, Hilton, Holidai Inn, SpringHill Suites, and Dais Inn. Florida seafood restaurants, with indoor and outdoor seating overlooking the water, include ones such as Hemingway's Island Grill, Flounder & Chovder House, Grand Marlin, Shaggi Pensacola Beach and Peg Leg. Pete & s.
Spanning 1,471 feet in the water, the Pensacola Bay dock provides fishing for bluefish, pompano, sea fish, Spanish mackerel and rainbow trout. Flounder cannot be turned off.
Foot prints on the water on the Eco Sand Tour, marked with informative signs, provide an opportunity to learn about local wildlife, including dolphins, sharks, turtles, birds, fish and flowers. Each explains a different environmental theme.
Pensacola Beach is part of the Gulf Islands National Seashore, extending 160 miles from Fort Valton Beach, Florida, to Cat Island, Mississippi, and includes barrier islands, marine forests, bays, marine habitats and historic forts. The park's headquarters, which offers orientation films and exhibitions about the Naval Oaks Live area, are located in Gulf Breeze, an island between the mainland and Pensacola Beach.
The Gulf of Mexico National Seashore preserves pockets of American history and culture and includes the flora and fauna of visitors to Florida. For example, in the void formed by water and sky, the surface of dolphins, sharks swim, and pelicans and seagulls allow the breeze to carry them across the panorama.
One of the historic reservations for the Gulf Islands National Seashore is Fort Pickens, located at the western end of Santa Rosa Island, directly across the entrance to the Pensacola Bai Harbor from Fort Barrancas. Named after Brigadier General Andrew Pickens, a patriot who fought with excellence in South Carolina during the Revolutionary War, it was once the largest brick building in the Gulf of Mexico.
Пратећи своје порекло до 1821. године, када је трећи систем обалних утврда проширен на заштиту Пенсацола Баи-а и његових копнених обалних заједница, он је усвојио секундарну сврху четири године касније када је усвојено законодавно тело за формирање дворишта и депоа морнарице. Као део тројке одбране требало је да чува западни крај острва Санта Роса у сарадњи са утврђеним блоковима северно од канала и на источном крају Пердидо кључа.
Његова изградња, под надзором инжењерског корпуса америчке војске, започета је 1829. године након што је влада набавила 998 хектара земље и петокраку структуру, саграђену од више од 21,5 милиона цигли и опремила више од 200 топова годинама касније.
"(Радници) су користили грађевинске материјале као што су креч, вода и песак за мешање малтера; дрво за роштиљ и за изградњу зида, скеле и потпорне зграде; оловни листови до водоотпорних лукова казета и за олуке и одводе; гранит за степенице и трасе камење; бакарне плоче, шипке и чвора за употребу у часописима о праху; (и) цигла за главне радове и шаркере ", према подацима Националне службе парка.
Захтевајући гарнизон од 500 мушкараца током ратног времена, али у стању да прими двоструко већи број у хитним ситуацијама, пето бастионна структура, која се састојала од једног реда казетата и слоја барбетта, била је способна да ослободи ватрени прстен са своје стране окренуте према мору. зидови.
У том случају једина борба коју је икада доживела догодила се током грађанског рата.
Данас посетиоци још увек улазе у Форт Пицкенс кроз оригинални салли пост, главни улаз осигуран тешким храстовим вратима. Четврти обложени гипсом служили су и за резиденције и за болнице. Наоружани каземати пружили су заштићене артиљеријске положаје и базу за топове другог нивоа. Три главне коморе, од којих је свака имала 1.000 килограма барута, повезане су тунелима. Часописи са прахом, који су чували црни извор напајања утврде, били су обложени дрвом да би се одржали сухом и било им је потребно ципеле од војника који су ушли у њих да спрече потенцијално паљење од искре. Соба за генераторе била је локација генератора са погоном на пару инсталираних 1903. године да обезбеде струју за рефлекторе и другу модерну опрему.
Шармер је створио суву језгру како би се утврда заштитила од напада на земљу. Кишница се сакупљала и чувала у цистернама за пиће. А бастион куле, усмјерен директно преко канала, осигурао је заштиту луке.